This article is about Follow Through and Overlapping Action principle in animation. It’s no secret that the 12 Principles of Animation serve as the foundation for any animator. Once you’ve mastered these fundamental techniques, you’ll be well on your way to knowing the language of animation.

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation

These 12 principles, first outlined in Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston’s The Illusion of Life, have remained the essential road map for aspiring and veteran animators alike. Our animators are no different! In fact, they have produced their own set of animation tutorials to illustrate the 12 Principles of Animation using, you guessed it, animation.

Follow Through and Overlapping Action is two closely related techniques that serve to represent movement more realistically and give the sense that characters obey physical laws such as the principle of inertia.

What is follow-through action?

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
What is follow-through action?

It is critical to have effective follow-through action while producing any form of animation, whether 3D or 2D. This requires animators to animate the people and objects in such a way that their movement appears lifelike and smooth.

If there is no follow-through motion, the animation will look choppy and uncomfortable. To produce good follow-through action, animators must consider physics principles such as inertia and momentum.

They must also be aware of how various bodily parts move in relation to one another. For example, as a character walks, his or her hair should follow suit.

>>>Read more: How do the best animation studios use the staging principle in animation?

What Is Overlapping Action?

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
What Is Overlapping Action?

Overlapping action is a technique used in animation to create the illusion of depth in a 2D or 3D area. This is accomplished by animating items or elements so that they appear to overlap as they move across the screen.

This can be accomplished using either 2D or 3D animation software. Overlapping action is frequently utilized in motion graphics and video effects to create a sense of depth and realism.

>>>Read more: 12 Principles of Animation: Timing and Spacing principle

Follow-through and overlapping action: what is the difference?

Follow through and overlapping action are two fundamental ideas in animation for creating genuine movement. They are frequently confused, although there is a significant distinction between the two:

The way elements of the body continue to move after the body has stopped is referred to as follow through. Overlapping Action refers to the difference in timing between the main body and its constituent pieces. These two are essentially describing distinct facets of the same subject.

The roles of follow through and overlapping action important in animation?

The goal of animation is to make things appear believable and lifelike. Animators must pay particular attention to follow through and overlapping animation in order to achieve the impression of realism. When an object continues to move after the force that was driving it to move has stopped, this is referred to as follow through.

Overlapping animation is crucial because it helps to create a sense of realism by giving objects weight. When two things overlap each other, it produces the appearance that they are touching.

This is especially crucial in 3D animation when generating a sense of realism is critical to make the viewer feel as though they are in another universe.

Follow Through And Overlapping Action Examples

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
Follow Through And Overlapping Action Examples

Follow Through Animations Examples

Follow Through is the theory that after an actor stops moving, weakly connected components of an object or body will continue to move. The tip of the head is still moving, but the head has stopped moving.

Overlapping Animations Examples

Overlapping Action is a related concept in that it depicts how distinct sections of a body or object move at different rates. The delay in the tip of the head as the head starts moving is visible here, as is the tip of the head dragging itself after the head has come to rest.

Applications in animation

Case 1

When a character wears a long cape or has long ears, these parts will continue to move even though the character has stopped moving. “The coat, the ears” will continue to “follow through” even though the character has stopped.

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
Applications in animation

Take the example of a flower pot being moved. Basically, when the main part of the whole pot moves (i.e. the pot part), the head of the second part (here the top of the flower head) will be the last to catch up to the movement of the main part, and when the main part moves. The body stops, and the flower head will move by inertia beyond the top of the action, then stabilize, standing still in place.

Case 2

When the whole body is in motion, they are not moving at the same time, but each part of the body will have a different speed of movement.

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
Applications in animation

For example, when one part of the body stops moving, another part (for example, a hand) will continue to act for one more frame and then slowly come to a stop. Like the body jumping to a stop, normally the body will move by inertia with a slightly bent posture, beyond the stopping position of the set foot, and then return to stand straight back to the stop position.

Case 3

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
Applications in animation

Loose skin, like a fat dog’s jawline, will move at a slower rate than other solid parts of the body. Parts like these will apply drag against the main body action.

Case 4

The perfection of the action – the way in which the action takes place, will often be more important than the action itself.

Follow Through and Overlapping Action: 12 Principles of Animation
Applications in animation

Hand is the right example to use this method. The elbow usually goes first to guide the movement of the hand. The elbow goes first, then the arm, then the hand. This is true even when walking. The arm is pulled slightly behind the elbow, and the hand follows the arm.

Case 5

Hold “move”. A character can come to a complete stop, but the “floating” part can move according to the main action that ended before to convey weight and create realism and reliability of things.

The same for Squash and Stretch, with a certain amount of Drag, will tell you about the material of the object. This can be applied to hair, feathers, etc. similar materials.

Read more: How do the Best Animation Studios use the Squash and Stretch principle?

Tips for art-mazing success

  • I recommend FlipaClip if you have an iPad or a tablet. It’s a fantastic program that allows you to create digital animations in the style of a flipbook!
  • Make your super bunny more beautiful (and powerful!) by coloring it.
  • Make additional characters for a better animation!
  • You can add more in-between frames to make the transition even smoother.

Conclusion

It can be said that the Follow Through and Overlapping Action method creates a highlight for the action. The lack of these elements will make the activity somewhat boring and lack vibrancy. With the right application, you can “breathe” your character to impress and remember!

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